These estimates suggest that. 4.3 Why Listening Is Difficult. In particular, most of the data suggest that damage to the anterior temporal lobes affects amodal processing. However, it may be that a specific fruit, such as an apple, is actually a simpler, more concrete concept than a superordinate or abstract concept, such as the category “fruit.” In fact, substantial evidence suggests this is the case (see Edelman, 1998 for a review). Even when a single item is presented, it may still be necessary to hold it in some temporary area while other brain areas retrieve information relevant to the response. Without a semantic model, it is difficult for the user to identify the correct customer key, customer ID, or the date hierarchy. It may be serving as a monitor of conflict, but it is possible that it plays other roles as well. One of the major disadvantages of a semantic differential scale is the lack of standardization. Subjects viewed sentences that ended in either a semantically ambiguous word (e.g., “spade”) or an unambiguous near-synonym (e.g., “shovel”): Following each sentence subjects were presented with a probe word (e.g., “ace” or “garden”) and asked to determine if the probe fit the prior sentence context (semantic congruity judgment). This early electrical activity is generated by the large area of activation in the anterior cingulate. Jie Yang, in Context Effects on Embodied Representation of Language Concepts, 2013. Two experiments yielded the same pattern of ERP results: robust N400 semantic context effects in the AA condition (as expected), null effects in the UU and UA conditions, but a detectable effect for unattended targets following attended context words (AU). Semantic language skills refer to an understanding and appropriate use of meaning in single words, phrases, sentences and even longer units. The results (Figure 1) reveal a distributed, left-lateralized network that includes (1) the inferior parietal cortex (angular gyrus and posterior portions of the supramarginal gyrus), (2) lateral and ventral temporal cortex (middle temporal, inferior temporal, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri), (3) dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus and a small portion of posterior middle frontal gyrus), (4) ventromedial prefrontal cortex, (5) portions of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (mainly pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus), and (6) posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. In contrast, participants reported greater difficulty in ignoring words presented to their right ear, and a weak but significant N400 context effect was observed in the unattended right ear. The target dimension was semantic: participants were instructed to press a button for body-part words (EYE, ARM, etc.) In that case it would be the example of homonym because the meanings are unrelated to each other. As they may only know one meaning or find it difficult to understand that some words have more than one meaning. Thus, the very same task, when it is highly over learned, avoids the circuits involved in thought and relies upon an entirely different circuitry. Although the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex includes much of the classical ‘Broca's area’ and is often associated narrowly with speech production, a variety of neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence indicates that this region plays a key role in top-down activation and selection of semantic information (Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006; Thompson-Schill, D'Esposito, Aguirre, & Farah, 1997; Wagner, Pare-Blagoev, Clark, & Poldrack, 2001). This work is done from a cognitive rather than linguistic point of view. 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